Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycles. It may be that one partner cannot contribute to conception, or that a woman is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term.

Common Signs of Infertility in Women

  • Irregular periods.
  • Painful or heavy periods.

Most cases of female infertility are caused by problems with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods.

Ovulation problems are often caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a hormone imbalance problem which can interfere with normal ovulation. PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility. Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is another cause of ovulation problems. POI occurs when a woman’s ovaries stop working normally before she is 40. POI is not the same as early menopause.

Less common causes of fertility problems in women include:

  • Blocked fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease ,endometriosis or surgery for an ectopic pregnancy
  • Physical problems with the uterus
  • Uterine fibroids which are non-cancerous clumps of tissue and muscle on the walls of the uterus

Causes of male infertility:

These may include

  • Abnormal sperm production or function due to undescended testicles,
  • genetic defects,
  • health problems such as diabetes or infections such as chlamydia,gonorrhea,mumps or HIV.
  • Enlarged veins in the testes (varicocele) can also affect the quality of sperm.